a. Expressionism is all about emotion, the emotion that a person feels when looking at a certain object or piece of art. Expressionism is also the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect, it causes the viewer to react with emotion and to try and relate the work of art or object so that it pertains to their life. Cognitivism is the view that a work of art is valuable if it contributes to knowledge.
b. Leo Tolstoy defines art as something that accurately showed how the world is so that people would see it and be more aware of things going on around them and want to be more humane to each other and the world.
c. According to Collingwood art is only classified as art if the artist who created it was successful in delivering their emotion to the viewer. Therefore the viewer is the most important part of the piece of art work because without them actually feeling the emotion that the artist had in mind it isn’t successful in the eyes of the artist.
d. Both Louis Bourgeois and Kiki Smith both use metaphors in most of their art. They both really try to use their art to engage the viewers to make them feel their own emotions and to think for themselves instead of trying to think like the artist would want them to. Both Bourgeois and Smith tend to use everyday familiar objects and images that are well known to the viewers but they also try to display them in a way that the viewer has to use their imagination and create their own idea of what it is and what is going on.